Identifying genetic diversity and a preliminary core collection of Pyrus pyrifolia cultivars by a genome-wide set of SSR markers

Book Chapter
Yue Song, Lian Fan, Hui Chen, Mingyue Zhang, Qianqian Ma, Shaoling Zhang, Jun Wu
Scientia Horticulturae, Volume 167, 6 March 2014, Pages 5-16

Abstract

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A set of 134 SSR markers with high polymorphism covering the 17 linkage groups of pear were selected to study the genetic variability and relationships of 99 P. pyrifolia cultivars. A total of 660 allelic variants were detected, with the number of observed alleles per locus varying from 3 to 9, with a mean of 4.93 alleles per locus. Among 81 SSR markers newly developed from the pear genome, the highest polymorphism was obtained by the motif (GT/CA), and the least polymorphism generated by (AC/TG). Clustering relationships of 99 P. pyrifolia cultivars generally reflected geographical classification, and further confirmed the close relationship between pears from Yangtze River Basin and Japan. The results also indicated that Sichuan province played an important role in pear resource distribution. Genetic structure analysis revealed the similar relationship as clustering, indicating the close relationships between Japanese and Chinese pear; and further proved more genetic exchange among cultivars from Japan and Zhejiang, and fewer genetic exchange among cultivars from Yunnan, Hubei and Sichuan. CoreS1, a core collection of P. pyrifolia newly constructed by the preferred sampling strategy, included 24 cultivars, retained 95.74% observed number of alleles (Na) of the 99 P. pyrifolia cultivars. Principal component analysis (PCA) further supported the representative genetic diversity of CoreS1 for P. pyrifolia cultivars from China, Japan, and Korea. The high quality and comprehensive evaluation of P. pyrifolia cultivars by the SSR markers covering the whole genome demonstrates their potential application in genetic diversity, genetic relationship, and core collection research on other germplasm resources of pear.

Keywords

  • Pear (P. pyrifolia);
  • SSR markers;
  • Genetic diversity;
  • Core collection

Estimates of genetic parameters and genetic changes for fleece traits in Inner Mongolia cashmere goats

Journal paper
Yanjun Zhang, Zhiying Wang, Hong Lei, Zhixin Wang, Rui Su, Wenguang Zhang, Juan Zhou, Yonglong Wei, Ruiqiang Meng, Ruijun Wang, Jinquan Li
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 117, Issue 1, March 2014, Pages 41-46

Abstract

Genetic parameters and genetic trends for staple length (SL), staple fineness (SF), fiber length (FL) and fiber diameter (FD) were estimated using 7798 repeat records of 4583 Inner Mongolia cashmere goats at different ages measured from 2008–2011. These goats were descendants of 110 sires and 2139 dams, born between 2003 and 2010 at the Inner Mongolia Arbas cashmere goat stock farm. Analyses were carried out by average information restricted maximum likelihood, fitting four single-trait repeatability animal models with various combinations of individual and maternal effects. The best model for each fleece trait was chosen after testing for improvement of the log-likelihood values. Genetic parameters were then estimated under the most appropriate model. Genetic trends were determined by regressing yearly estimated mean breeding values on year of birth. All the fleece traits were influenced by direct addictive genetic and individual permanent environment effects. Estimates of direct heritability for SL, SF, FL and FD were 0.30, 0.27, 0.18 and 0.32, respectively. Genetic correlations among the fleece traits (SL–SF and FL–SF) were negative and high (−0.50 and −0.48). For the other fleece traits (SL–FL and SF–FD), the genetic correlation was moderate and positive (0.26 and 0.31). The phenotypic correlation among all fleece traits was low, ranging from −0.22 to 0.23. Compared with other traits, fleece traits were not objective traits in previous breeding programs; they presented irregular changes across year of birth. Estimates of genetic parameters and analyses of genetic trends would be helpful for designing a breeding program for the genetic improvement of fleece traits in Inner Mongolia cashmere goats.

Keywords

  • Heritability;
  • Genetic correlation;
  • Average breeding value;
  • Fleece traits

Chapter Nine - Genetic Vectors Approach in a Study of Fine Structure of Interaction Between Risk Haplotype of HTR2A and HLA-DRB1 Shared Epitope Alleles in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Book Chapter
Igor Sandalov, Leonid Padyukov
Between the Lines of Genetic Code, 2014, Pages 151-174

Abstract

We introduce new quantitative characteristics of the population using an analogy to the system of multi-spin molecules: the disease fields, which may depend on interactions, and the susceptibility to disease as derivative of genetic vector’s (GV’s) frequency of cases with respect to these fields. The genetic vector’s approach (GVA) is applied to statistical analysis of the interaction of two SNP haplotype of HTR2A and shared epitope (SE) alleles in relation to development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The analysis is performed for two independent cohorts, EIRA and NARAC, and based on the evaluation of double- and triple genotype–genotype versus SE alleles correlations. The Gibbs-like parametrization of GV frequencies makes analysis transparent and easy interpretable. We find that the main contribution into association to RA comes from GVs containing double SE. GVA may resolve an opposite role in risk/protection from different pairs of genetic variations and reveal an association to RA whereas the univariate analysis does not show significant association.

 

Cultivating admiration in brands: Warmth, competence, and landing in the “golden quadrant”

Conference paper
Jennifer Doe, Emily N. Garbinsky, Kathleen D. Vohs
Journal of Consumer Psychology, Volume 22, Issue 2, April 2012, Pages 191-194

 Abstract

5094313764_fd152c5c38_bAlthough a substantial amount of research has examined the constructs of warmth and competence, far less has examined how these constructs develop and what benefits may accrue when warmth and competence are cultivated. Yet there are positive consequences, both emotional and behavioral, that are likely to occur when brands hold perceptions of both. In this paper, we shed light on when and how warmth and competence are jointly promoted in brands, and why these reputations matter.Although a substantial amount of research has examined the constructs of warmth and competence, far less has examined how these constructs develop and what benefits may accrue when warmth and competence are cultivated. Yet there are positive consequences, both emotional and behavioral, that are likely to occur when brands hold perceptions of both. In this paper, we shed light on when and how warmth and competence are jointly promoted in brands, and why these reputations matter.

The Dragonfly Effect: Quick, Effective, and Powerful Ways To Use Social Media to Drive Social Change

Journal paper
Jennifer Doe, Emily N. Garbinsky, Kathleen D. Vohs
John Wiley & Sons | September 28, 2010 | ISBN-10: 0470614153

Abstract

Proven strategies for harnessing the power of social media to drive social change

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